Vertical Conservation

2021 CAADFuture workshop

‘Vertical Conservation’ – looking into envelope systems for skyscrapers in Dubai. The skin harvest-light through facilitating micro-ecologies to grow on the facade, saving energy by cycling carbon, acting as sun-shading, and recycling grey-water through the pipes for green-wall irrigation.

In particular, the pipe form was inspired by the long thin roots of Desert Hyacinth that circulate water and nutrients – a parasite with low primary productivity and is energy efficient. The envelope was generated with solar analysis to locate spots that accumulate the most and least solar incidences, where host plants and parasites would be grown respectively, as the latter has no chlorophyll and are unable to photosynthesise.

Desert Hyacinth was chosen as it is high in medical value, and is an all-flower-bearing parasite; still, it is becoming endangered, with very little information available for the public in the conservation of the species.

Ming Tang, Jayanaveenaa P, Daniel Escobar

WORKSHOP AI in+form by @r.e.ar_ at @caadfutures

Alberto Fernandez, Provides Ng, David Doria, Nikoletta Karastathi

check out our project in VR at  , go to the second-floor use “G”. Thanks AI in+form: Bio-inspired Solar Designs in Architecture with Alberto Fernandez, Provides Ng, David Doria, Nikoletta Karastathi

Digital Twins

Here is a demonstration of using Digital Twin to display building information, including sensors captured from IoT devices. You can download the app here. zip. 268MB,

right mouse clicks an object to open the BIM dashboard.
right mouse drag to change the camera angle.
left mouse click sensor to open IoT dashboard, and other web-based data.
Middle mouse button to zoom in/out.
M” to switch camera views.
W, A, S, D, Q, E to navigate.
space bar to jump.



extract BIM info from Revit.

Check more info about Digital Twin from Autodesk Forge and Unreal digital twin and 51 world

student thesis 2020-2021

The Effect of Path Environment on Pedestrians’ Route Selection: A Case Study of University of Cincinnati, OH

Jing Tian. Master of Science in Architecture
Committee Chair: Ming Tang
Committee Member: Na Chen, Julian Wang


Accelerometers Image of the Three Participants in Route 2

In recent years, there are a growing number of researchers who have shown concern about the impact of the walking environment on human walking experience and route selection. However, most of the studies regarding the influence of the path environment on pedestrians’ route selection are concentrated on the urban level, ignoring the discussion on the architectural level. Taking the University of Cincinnati (Ohio, US) as an example, this study aims to investigate whether the difference in the environmental settings of each route will affect pedestrians’ walking experiences and future route selection, with the ultimate goal of ascertaining the underlying relationship between the route environments and the user behavior in the process of rout selection and implementation.

This study included three routes from the Langsam library to the CEAS library. The research methods included data analytics, questionnaires, and comparative analysis. Firstly, participants’ psychological and physiological data were collected through surveys and E4 Wristband, respectively. Secondly, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to examine whether there was a significant difference in pedestrians’ walking experience among the three routes. Thirdly, through the analysis of the collected questionnaires, the factors that play an important role in pedestrians’ route selection were determined. Finally, all information about the physiological change of pedestrians within in a particular route was compared, including Electrodermal Activity (EDA), Blood Volume Pulse (HVP), Accelerometer (ACCE), and Skin Surface Temperature (TEMP).

In the end, it can be concluded that the three routes with different environmental settings bring different experiences to participants. More specifically, the level of comfort and openness of the route significantly affects the route selection of pedestrians, while the degree of fatigue during walking does not. The thermal environment of the route also affects the pedestrians’ route preferences. The pedestrians’ physiological experience varies significantly in the elevator hall and stairwell, as key nodes at each route. To sum up, for the transition space from outdoor to indoor, the factors affecting pedestrian route selection include the comfort, openness, and thermal environment. Based on this, it is necessary to take special consideration of the related environment setting of the elevator hall and stairwell in the route design process, which will have a certain influence on the route experience and selection of pedestrians.


Virtually Interactive DAAP

Rishyak Chowdhary Kommineni. School of Design. Master of Design.
Committee Chair: Ming Tang
Committee Member: Muhammad Rahman

The past few years have seen an increase in the use of virtual reality (VR) among designers in an attempt to create interactive projects to embrace technological innovations and adapt to the challenges of the digital era. While there are studies that examine the advantages of VR in presentations, meetings, and visitor’s experiences with it, there aren’t many studies examining the experience of designers who are responsible for the interactive space and narratives. The aim of this paper is to explore the practices, experiences, and perceptions of designers on the use of VR technology during exhibitions. The perceived advantages and challenges of such technologies and their requirements for the technology to be implemented in the field of design with virtual interactions are being discussed.
The paper provides an in-depth analysis of interviews with a number of designers based on a live example, DAAPworks, an exhibition that takes place every year at the University of Cincinnati’s College of Design, Architecture, Art, and Planning (UC DAAP). It has been converted into a virtual platform in Behance due to the pandemic (Covid-19) in the year 2019. A working prototype of the exhibition has been created for this thesis to establish a starting point for the Virtually Interactive DAAPworks project. The ultimate aim is to offer a more critical and methodological examination and assessment of the use of VR for design exhibitions and to provide suggestions for designing and developing virtually interactive spaces in the future.


Paper in CAAD Future Conference

Paper “Social distancing and behavior modeling with Agent-based simulation” is accepted to the CAAD Future 2021 conference and inclusion into the CAAD Futures 2021 Springer Proceedings.

Presentation. 16 – 18 JULY 2021.


The research discusses applying agent-based simulation (ABS) technology to analyze the social distancing in public space during the COVID-19 pandemic to facilitate design and planning decisions. The ABS is used to simulate pedestrian flow and construct the micro-level complexity within a simulated environment. This paper describes the various computational methods related to the ABS and design space under the new social distancing guidelines. We focus on the linear phases of agent activities, including (1) environmental query, (2) waiting in a zone, (3) waiting in a queue, and (4) tasks (E-Z-Q-T)  in response to design iterations related to crowd control and safety distance. The design project is extended to the agents’ interactions driven by a set of tasks in a simulated grocery store, restaurant, and public restroom.  We applied a quantitative analysis method and proximity analysis to evaluate architectural layouts and crowd control strategies. We discussed social distancing, pedestrian flow efficiency, public accessibility, and ways of reducing congestion through the intervention of the E-Z-Q-T phases.  

Keywords: agent-based simulation, social distancing, crowd control

Figure 3.  Agent density and space proximity map. ABS without social distancing vs. with social distancing rules. Each agent’s autonomous “action” lies in modifying its movement based on its rules and environment. Top. Floor plan and interior perspective of a check-in area of a restaurant. Middle: proximity map without social distancing. Bottom: proximity map with 2-meter social distancing with the same number of agents in the same given time. Notice the hot waiting areas’ issues are replaced with a larger waiting area, while some agents choose not to walk in the restaurant after EQ. Right. Compare the number of occupancies. Red: agents with social distancing. Blue: agents without social distancing.

This research was funded by UC Forward, as a part of the Price Hill project at UC.

Book Chapter: Cyber-Physical Experiences

Book Chapter

Turan Akman, and Ming Tang. Cyber-Physical Experiences: Architecture as Interface

in the book Virtual Aesthetics in Architecture: designing in mixed realities. Routledge, 2021.

Virtual Aesthetics in Architecture: Designing in Mixed Realities presents a curated selection of projects and texts contributed by leading international architects and designers who are using virtual reality technologies in their design process. It triggers discussion and debate on exploring the aesthetic potential and establishing its language as an expressive medium in architectural design. Although virtual reality is not new and the technology has evolved rapidly, the aesthetic potential of the medium is still emerging and there is a great deal more to explore.


Cyber-Physical Experiences: Architecture as Interface

Turan Akman [STG Design] and Ming Tang [University of Cincinnati]

Conventionally, architects have relied on the qualities of elements, such as materiality, light, solids, and voids, to break away from the static nature of space and enhance the way users experience and perceive architecture. Even though some of these elements and methods have helped create more dynamic spaces, architecture is still bound by the conventional constraints of the discipline. With the introduction of technologies such as augmented reality (AR), it is becoming easier to blend digital and physical realities and create new types of spatial qualities and experiences, especially when this is combined with virtual reality (VR) early in the design process. Although these emerging technologies cannot replace the primary and conventional qualitative elements in architecture, they can be used to supplement and enhance the experience and qualities architecture provides.

in order to explore how AR can enhance the way architecture is experienced and perceived and how VR can be used to enhance the effects of these AR additions, the authors have proposed a hybrid museum in which AR is integrated into conventional analog methods (e.g. materiality, light) to mediate spatial experiences. The authors also created a VR walkthrough and collected quantifiable data on the spatial effects of these AR additions to evaluate the proposed space.

Check more info at Chapter 9 | Cyber-physical experiences