Monthly Archives: October 2014

Urbanized Landscape: Shenzhen

Bridge

Bridge connecting two hills

mountain range land bridge

 

MAJOR CONCERNS

Enviroromentally irresposible to tear up landscape to bury power lines

Pollution is a serious issue

How is water and food shipped into city?

Rise of middle class > more leisure time > more recreational/open space

Land should have multiple uses, no left over space at all

Buji River for waste water treatment?

Need more connections to Honghu park

Embrace fishing tradition? expand pond (~13 feet above sea level)


 

FUTURE

First, the introduction of public transit will improve the connection of the site to the city;

Second, the potential for future development in SQ could incorporate the persistent and rapid growth dynamics happening in the entire Pearl River Delta;

Third, the expansion of Shenzhen’s center and SEZ will affect SQ’s role in geo-political and economic contexts


 

OTHER FACTS

12 hours ahead of eastern standard

Population: 15 million (urban and rural)

World’s largest exporter of jelly beans

Used to be hilly fishing village (pre-1980s)

Humid subtropical climate, monsoons April-late September, torrential rain occasionally

“All of the initial focal points of the early urbanization were dominated by industrial and market interests.”

 

E1P2

Interior Render 1 perspective Render 3 perspective Render 3 Perspective Render 4 Perspective Render 5 sketch 3 sketch 4

P1 Refinement

Bird's eye entrance road top view tunnels

Update Info

shenzhen

History:

 

Shenzhen

Shenzhen situated immediately north of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. The area became China’s first—and one of the most successful—Special Economic Zones (SEZs)

Special Economic Zones of the People’s Republic of China (SEZs) are special economic zones located in mainland China. The government of the People’s Republic of China gives SEZs special (more free market-oriented) economic policies and flexible governmental measures. This allows SEZs to utilize an economic management system that is more attractive to doing business than in the rest of mainland China. In August 1980, the National People’s Congress (NPC) passed “Regulations for The Special Economy Zone of Guangdong Province” and officially designated a portion of Shenzhen as the Shenzhen Special Economy Zone (SSEZ).

Shenzhen’s modern cityscape is the result of the vibrant economy made possible by rapid foreign investment since the institution of the policy of “reform and opening” establishment of the SEZ in late 1979, before which it was only a small village. Both Chinese citizens and foreign nationals have invested enormous amounts of money in the Shenzhen SEZ. More than US$30 billion in foreign investment has gone into both foreign-owned and joint ventures, at first mainly in manufacturing but more recently in the service industries as well. Shenzhen is now considered one of the fastest-growing cities in the world.

Being southern mainland China’s major financial center, Shenzhen is home to the Shenzhen Stock Exchange as well as the headquarters of numerous high-tech companies. Shenzhen is also one of the busiest container ports in the world

Shenzhen has seen its population and activity develop rapidly since the establishment of the SEZ. Shenzhen’s population is roughly ten million. About six million of these people are non-local migrant workers who may return to their home town/city on the weekends and live in factory dormitories during the week. Shenzhen is the largest migrant city in China.

 

Sungang Railway Station, formerly “Shenzhen North Railway Station,” is a freight station in Luohu District of Shenzhen, Guangdong, China. The original station was opened in 1962 with its name “Sungang”, expanded in 1973 and changed to its “Shenzhen North” in 1977. Its name was changed back to “Sungang” again in 2008 due to the same name as another “Shenzhen North Railway Station” in the future Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong Express Rail Link.

 

 

SQ:

3 documents from baidu may helpful for us know more about SQ

Consultancy Mission and Entry Rules from government

http://wenku.baidu.com/view/fb56f5cfa1c7aa00b52acb2f.html

Proposal

http://wenku.baidu.com/view/f71cd98fa0116c175f0e48cd.html

http://www.kcap.eu/en/news/2011/kcap_wins_urban_regeneration_competition_in_shenzhen_china

Planning from government

http://wenku.baidu.com/view/6a0ed5d1b14e852458fb57e7.html

P2-1 Visibility Diagrams

Visibility Diagram-01 Visibility Diagram-02 Visibility Diagram-03 Visibility Diagram-04

P-1 Update

Midterm Update

Landscape

– roads can still travel through park but prefer at slower speeds,

Park on the edge

– bus lanes on next to the medians, easy cross over to park, trees creating a visual barrier, slower speed limits reduce sound created by cars.

Street Hierarchy – laying out road networks that exclude automobile through-traffic from developed areas.
Restricts or eliminates direct connections between certain types of links – allows connections between similar roads arterial to arterial.
In contrast traditional grid plans have higher order roads are connected to lower order of roads. Arterials to local.
Lowest level is cul-de-sac or non connecting paths, than collector paths which are rings around neighborhoods or curvilinear than those connect to arterials.

Traffic engineers consider Street Hierarchy to be optimal and eliminates through traffic on all streets except arterials. Exacerbates Traffic Congestion, leading to air pollution and other undesirable outcomes.

Pedestrian Travel is made easy and pleasant within subdivisions but impossible outside. Issue is good circulation in neighborhoods buts difficult to go to get to shops even though they are close neighborhoods typically have many walls preventing the easy pedi access.

Street Hierarchies is the default mode of suburban design in US. Only good for low density. Not good for geographical areas. Not high degree of connectivity. Becoming more popular in Europe. Popular in India because of the increase amount of cars every year. China is the aftermath of implementing hierarcical stree-layout and rapid urban development. With over engineered roads and public trans, high rise residential towers. Very different from the American system.

Traditional Neighborhood Development
Hierarchy of Roads
USA
Freeways – off ramps, motorways, toll roads
Arterials – expected to carry large volumes of traffic divided in major and minor. Few to no drive ways. Cannot be called freeways cause occasionally there are intersections.
Collectors – collect traffic from nearby local roads and distribute to arterials.
Local- Bottom of the hierarchy low speeds, low volumes of traffic
UK
Motorways – 70mph, shoulders near lane 1, Emergency Telephone lines for broken down cars every mile, In sense the same as our freeways
Primary A-road – Green on maps and signs, (whatever color we show the roads in map correlate that color from then on) Primary roadways are fully connected so you can stay on it.
Non-Primary A-road – Exists if route is important but there is a nearby route. Red on maps.
B-Road – Regional in nature and used to connect areas of lesser importance. Brown or Yellow
C-Road – These routes are not shown on road maps
Unclassified – No defined destinations local roads
France
Autoroutes – Toll based freeways. Sections through major cities are usually free.
Route Nationale – Before Autoroutes were created this was the old system. State Maintained and good for navigating around the cities
Routes Departementales – Maintained by the Departements and vary in quality. Vary from 2 lane roads to 1 one roads.
Routes Communales – Lowest quality as well as small lanes and hard for traffic to pass.

Read – http://dusp.mit.edu/cdd/news/successful-streets-performance-measures-community-engagement-and-urban-street-design

http://www.nyc.gov/html/dot/downloads/pdf/2012-nacto-urban-street-design-guide.pdf

Streets are Public Spaces – Most vital but under utilized in cities, Streets are much more than just traffic but should be designed to include public spaces and channels for movement.

Safety is a priority 32,885 people were killed in traffic crashes in 2010

Street Spaces can be reused as parklets, bicycle, parking and pop-up cafes

Width should be the limiting factor not class or type.

Streets – transporting goods and people, Live work Play Interact. (Can we figure out a different approach for quick parking instead of street parking which takes a lane kind of a false lane)

Intersections – Different users mix and compete for time within the same space. Complex junctions to driveways. Traffic signals, roundabouts, t-junctions,

Low Impact Design – Efforts to manage storm water instead of directing it to the sewer system. Have increased in importance cause of climate change, water population, and outdated infrastructure. Reduce long term construction and maintenance costs, prevents flooding, Drivers slow down near planted greenery and trees. Acts as a buffer between cars and pedi.

http://www.isocarp.net/Data/case_studies/1437.pdf

Increase in private car ownership the city has gradually suffered from exhaust emission of vehicles. Traffic has been getting worse and worse in the urban areas. The lack of consideration of human scale has led to characteristic of the city. Planning study for the first city-wide pedestrian plan in the country.

Public space should be able to 1) create a better balance between vehicular traffic, pedestrians and cyclists
(2) improve conditions for walking and cycling (3) improve conditions for resting and simply passing time (4) upgrade the visual quality of streetscape (5) Promote a shift in mind-sets towards a more people-orientated city culture.

Pedestrian friendsly cities Copenhagen, Venice, and Strasbourg. Causeway Bay pedestrian plan in Hong Kong and Portland Pedestrian Master plan.

http://www.mlaplus.com/#3825/pingdi-low-carbon-campus-shenzhen-cn

Urban Planning Models and Theories

Central Place theory
-Polders of the Netherlands, the Fens of East Anglia in the UK
– Tested in Southern Germany and came to the conclusion that people gather together in cities to share goods and ideas
– Humans will always purchase goods from the closest place
– Evenly distributed population
– All Settlements are equidistant and exist in a triangular lattice pattern

Hippodamian Plan/Grid Plan
– City of Priene
– center of the city contains the agora, theaters and temples
– Very mathematical laid out
– Considered the most rational plan

Concentric Zone Model
– Social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings
– Size may vary but order always remains the same
– Business District, transition zone, independent workers home, better residences, commuters zone
– Land may restrict growth of certain sectors

Sector Model
– Low-income households to be near railroad lines
– Stresses the importance of transportation corridors
– Low cost housing is near industry and transportation proving Hoyt’s model

Multiple Nuclei Method
– City grows from several independent points rather than from one central business district
– As they expand they merge to form a single urban area
– Certain activities cluster and others repel each other determining their location
– Not homogeneity

Further research on urban planning in China

New Cities in Asia, General Urban Planning, and Site-Specific Facts and Advice.

Eclectic Considerations

Albert