Author Archives: Steffen Pawlosky

Steffen Final

Breaking Ground Diagram Diagram 1 Diagram 3 diagram2 possible plan looking at 1 Looking Up Render

http://www.asla.org/2012awards/images/largescale/196_08.jpg

http://www.asla.org/2012awards/196.html

http://www.swagroup.com/project/wusong-riverfront.html

 

Intergration maps

Update Info

Landscape

– roads can still travel through park but prefer at slower speeds,

Park on the edge

– bus lanes on next to the medians, easy cross over to park, trees creating a visual barrier, slower speed limits reduce sound created by cars.

Street Hierarchy – laying out road networks that exclude automobile through-traffic from developed areas.
Restricts or eliminates direct connections between certain types of links – allows connections between similar roads arterial to arterial.
In contrast traditional grid plans have higher order roads are connected to lower order of roads. Arterials to local.
Lowest level is cul-de-sac or non connecting paths, than collector paths which are rings around neighborhoods or curvilinear than those connect to arterials.

Traffic engineers consider Street Hierarchy to be optimal and eliminates through traffic on all streets except arterials. Exacerbates Traffic Congestion, leading to air pollution and other undesirable outcomes.

Pedestrian Travel is made easy and pleasant within subdivisions but impossible outside. Issue is good circulation in neighborhoods buts difficult to go to get to shops even though they are close neighborhoods typically have many walls preventing the easy pedi access.

Street Hierarchies is the default mode of suburban design in US. Only good for low density. Not good for geographical areas. Not high degree of connectivity. Becoming more popular in Europe. Popular in India because of the increase amount of cars every year. China is the aftermath of implementing hierarcical stree-layout and rapid urban development. With over engineered roads and public trans, high rise residential towers. Very different from the American system.

Traditional Neighborhood Development
Hierarchy of Roads
USA
Freeways – off ramps, motorways, toll roads
Arterials – expected to carry large volumes of traffic divided in major and minor. Few to no drive ways. Cannot be called freeways cause occasionally there are intersections.
Collectors – collect traffic from nearby local roads and distribute to arterials.
Local- Bottom of the hierarchy low speeds, low volumes of traffic
UK
Motorways – 70mph, shoulders near lane 1, Emergency Telephone lines for broken down cars every mile, In sense the same as our freeways
Primary A-road – Green on maps and signs, (whatever color we show the roads in map correlate that color from then on) Primary roadways are fully connected so you can stay on it.
Non-Primary A-road – Exists if route is important but there is a nearby route. Red on maps.
B-Road – Regional in nature and used to connect areas of lesser importance. Brown or Yellow
C-Road – These routes are not shown on road maps
Unclassified – No defined destinations local roads
France
Autoroutes – Toll based freeways. Sections through major cities are usually free.
Route Nationale – Before Autoroutes were created this was the old system. State Maintained and good for navigating around the cities
Routes Departementales – Maintained by the Departements and vary in quality. Vary from 2 lane roads to 1 one roads.
Routes Communales – Lowest quality as well as small lanes and hard for traffic to pass.

Read – http://dusp.mit.edu/cdd/news/successful-streets-performance-measures-community-engagement-and-urban-street-design

http://www.nyc.gov/html/dot/downloads/pdf/2012-nacto-urban-street-design-guide.pdf

Streets are Public Spaces – Most vital but under utilized in cities, Streets are much more than just traffic but should be designed to include public spaces and channels for movement.

Safety is a priority 32,885 people were killed in traffic crashes in 2010

Street Spaces can be reused as parklets, bicycle, parking and pop-up cafes

Width should be the limiting factor not class or type.

Streets – transporting goods and people, Live work Play Interact. (Can we figure out a different approach for quick parking instead of street parking which takes a lane kind of a false lane)

Intersections – Different users mix and compete for time within the same space. Complex junctions to driveways. Traffic signals, roundabouts, t-junctions,

Low Impact Design – Efforts to manage storm water instead of directing it to the sewer system. Have increased in importance cause of climate change, water population, and outdated infrastructure. Reduce long term construction and maintenance costs, prevents flooding, Drivers slow down near planted greenery and trees. Acts as a buffer between cars and pedi.

http://www.isocarp.net/Data/case_studies/1437.pdf

Increase in private car ownership the city has gradually suffered from exhaust emission of vehicles. Traffic has been getting worse and worse in the urban areas. The lack of consideration of human scale has led to characteristic of the city. Planning study for the first city-wide pedestrian plan in the country.

Public space should be able to 1) create a better balance between vehicular traffic, pedestrians and cyclists
(2) improve conditions for walking and cycling (3) improve conditions for resting and simply passing time (4) upgrade the visual quality of streetscape (5) Promote a shift in mind-sets towards a more people-orientated city culture.

Pedestrian friendsly cities Copenhagen, Venice, and Strasbourg. Causeway Bay pedestrian plan in Hong Kong and Portland Pedestrian Master plan.

http://www.mlaplus.com/#3825/pingdi-low-carbon-campus-shenzhen-cn

Urban Planning Models and Theories

Central Place theory
-Polders of the Netherlands, the Fens of East Anglia in the UK
– Tested in Southern Germany and came to the conclusion that people gather together in cities to share goods and ideas
– Humans will always purchase goods from the closest place
– Evenly distributed population
– All Settlements are equidistant and exist in a triangular lattice pattern

Hippodamian Plan/Grid Plan
– City of Priene
– center of the city contains the agora, theaters and temples
– Very mathematical laid out
– Considered the most rational plan

Concentric Zone Model
– Social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings
– Size may vary but order always remains the same
– Business District, transition zone, independent workers home, better residences, commuters zone
– Land may restrict growth of certain sectors

Sector Model
– Low-income households to be near railroad lines
– Stresses the importance of transportation corridors
– Low cost housing is near industry and transportation proving Hoyt’s model

Multiple Nuclei Method
– City grows from several independent points rather than from one central business district
– As they expand they merge to form a single urban area
– Certain activities cluster and others repel each other determining their location
– Not homogeneity

Orginialzone blur zone blur with Roads Urban Villages and Gated Communities
Towers

Urban Form related to Transportation

transportation transportation2 transportation3 transportation4 transportation5 transportation6