Author Archives: 05 Sarah Kusuma

A3: Huizenga, Kusuma, Li, Moyer

Our team decided to model our installation at a small scale, 1/8”=1’, to show how the panels would be constructed in the space with a fourth of the panels that would be in the space. While modeling we had to resolve a few issues.

Due to the small scale of our model, we ran into a few problems. Our panels are supposed to have varying holes cut into the cardboard that help direct the amount of sound that is diffused or absorbed in a particular area. These holes are located in specific spots based on the parametric grasshopper scripts we created. However, our model is so small, that the cost of cutting out these holes would’ve cost us about $300 total, which wasn’t an option we could consider.

Another problem with the model we ran into was the amount of bending that occurs in each of the panels, this angle size is based on the parametric grasshopper script as well. However with the small size of the panels, the slight changes in the panels is barely visible.

The model does illustrate the construction of these panels and the amount of panels that would be in the space.

We used chipboard for the Neihoff studio with a plexi ceiling for better viewing. We used white Bristol for the cardboard parts of the panels and blue construction paper to represent the blue foam. We laser cut at Losantiville, a local rapid prototyping company.

board

Shape Memory Alloy Group Research

Shape Memory Alloys are metal alloys, made up of two to three different elements, these alloys that can be trained to remembers certain shape at a certain temperature. This allows the material to change its shape based on an external stimulus, usually heat. What this means is that no matter how you bend and manipulated the material, once heated or cooled to a set temperature, the alloy will return to its remembered shape at that temperature. The shape memory alloys act as the sensor and transmitter, the mechanical moving part, and the actual material that is part of the design.

The two main types of shape-memory alloys are copper-aluminium-nickel, and nickel-titanium alloys but SMAs can also be created by alloying zinc, copper, gold and iron. Depending on the material’s shape sheet, foil, tube, bar, wire and other forms the SMA will react to temperatures that range from -50 ° C to 166 ° C. However, nitinol must be trained to return to a (changed) set shape at a temperature of 500 ° C.

Shape memory alloys were originally discovered in the 1930s, however, due to many factors it was never widely used. One of the most common Shape Memory Alloys today is NiTiNOL—named for nickel (Ni) and titanium (Ti)—and the scientific group that discovered it—the Naval Ordnance Laboratory (NOL). In 1960s the United States Naval Ordnance was experimenting with some new alloys, and a sample of the alloy was bent many times and presented at the laboratory management meeting. One of the associate technical directors, Dr. David S. Muzzey wanted to see what would happen if the sample was subjected to heat, so he held his pipe lighter underneath, and surprisingly, the alloy stretched back to its original shape.

Memory shape alloys have two effects, One-Way Memory Effect and Two-way Memory Effect. In one-way memory effect the shape-memory alloy is in its cold state, the metal can be bent or stretched and will hold those shapes until heated above the transition temperature. Upon heating, the shape changes to its original. When the metal cools again it will remain in the hot shape, until deformed again. The two-way shape-memory effect is when the material remembers two different shapes: one at low temperatures, and one at the high-temperatures. This can also be obtained without the application of an external force (intrinsic two-way effect).

The reason the material behaves so differently in these situations lies in training. Training implies that a shape memory can learn to behave in a certain way. In the one-way memory effect a shape-memory alloy “remembers” its high-temperature shape, but upon heating to recover the high-temperature shape, immediately “forgets” the low-temperature shape. However, it can be trained to “remember” to leave some reminders of the deformed low-temperature condition in the high-temperature phases. A shaped, trained object heated beyond 500 ° C, for nitinol, will lose the two-way memory effect, this is known as “amnesia”.

Despite all this, one must understand the limitations of the material. Nitinol shows superelasticity, which can be as high as 20x that of steel, caused by the stress-induced phase transformation from the high temperature phase austenite into the low temperature phase martensite; the superelasticity makes the alloy difficult to cut and it cannot kink. Nitinol has a melting point of 1310 ° C, an Elastic Modulus (GPa) of 40 at martensite (lower temperature) and 75 at austenite, and Electrical Resistivity (µΩ-cm) 76 at martensite and 82 at austenite, the lower the number the better at opposing electrical currents. Nitinol can be joined by mechanical techniques; adhesives, soldering, welding, and the alloy can be used as shrink-fit to connect two mating parts. Surface finishing is critical on Nitinol parts used for their superelasticity and fatigue strength, any surface irregularities or micro cracks can cause fatigue failure.

It was originally thought that nitinol could be used to prefabricate tools used in deep water or space and at one point, Goodyear Aerospace Corp. had envisioned deforming a nitinol satellite antenna and placing it into a small rocket payload, then restoring it to its original shape upon deployment by using heat.

Currently, nitinol is used for industrial and medical purposes. Nitinol is used in aircraft for decreased engine noise, piping, automotive, telecommunication for smartphone autofocus actuators, and robotics. In its untrained state, nitinol is used in orthodontics. In it’s trained state it is used for eyeglass frames, medical stents (reacting to body temperature) to keep blood flowing within an artery, and guides for catheters.

Even though the current cost of the material and the patented fee needed to reproduce it is still quite high, there are a lot of potential uses in the architecture field. An idea that is within reach is to use the material as a frame for a small camping tent or storage box, in extreme temperatures, the SMA would allow for quick set up.

Another idea focuses on Homeostatic Architecture, which would allow the building to have some semblance of self-control in maintaining the interior space as a stable environment suitable for occupancy. SMAs are ideal for this system as they can be trained to react to a five-degree shift in temperature.

A third use deals with framing the entire building out of SMAs. With temperature changes, the windows could get smaller on the sunny side and larger on the shaded side. With interior temperature changes, the building could open up at the roof and foundation to create passive ventilation passages that lead the cooling air to warm areas in the building. In emergencies, the corridors could expand making larger exits for people to evacuate faster, or in the case of a fire, the space could get smaller to control the fire better.

There are many unknowns about shape memory alloys waiting to be discovered.

Sarah Kusuma: http://ming3d.com/DAAP/ARCH3014sp2013/?p=1623

Kuang Li: http://ming3d.com/DAAP/ARCH3014sp2013/?p=1630

Presentation: SMA

Training Nitinol Video

Shape Memory Alloys: Limitations and Modern Uses

Shape Memory Alloys are metal alloys, made up of two different elements, these alloys remember their original shape and return to their original shape when heated after being deformed.  A shape memory alloy is capable of remembering a previously memorized shape. This allows the material to change its shape based on an external stimulus, usually heat. Depending on the material’s shape sheet, foil, tube, bar, wire and other forms the SMA will react to temperatures that range from -50 ° C to 166 ° C. However, nitinol must be trained to return to a changed shape at a temperature of 500 ° C.

One of the most common Shape Memory Alloys is NiTiNOL—named for nickel (Ni) and titanium (Ti)—and the scientific group that discovered it—the Naval Ordnance Laboratory (NOL). William Buehler stumbled upon it while searching for materials that could be used in tools for dismantling magnetic mines. Though William Buehler discovered it, its properties were uncovered by accident; at a laboratory meeting, a strip was presented and was bent several times, Dr. David S. Muzzey, heated it with his pipe lighter, and surprisingly, the strip stretched back to its original form.

It was thought that nitinol could be used to prefabricate tools used in deep water or space. At one point, Goodyear Aerospace Corp. had envisioned deforming a nitinol satellite antenna and placing it into a small rocket payload, then restoring it to its original shape upon deployment by using heat.

Though there are many present day uses, currently, nitinol is used most often in medical field. In its untrained state, nitinol is used in orthodontics. It is used to help eyeglasses go back to their original shape after getting bent out of shape. However, because the material is so difficult to train it is most often used as medical procedures. Taking advantage of the temperature trained material, nitinol has been trained to react to body temperature and used as medical stents, devices that maintain blood flow within an artery, implants that restore function to a failing heart valve and retrieval devices that remove life threatening blood clots from deep within the brain.

Despite all this, one must understand the limitations of the material. Nitinol shows superelasticity, which can be as high as 20x that of steel, caused by the stress-induced phase transformation from the high temperature phase austenite into the low temperature phase martensite; the superelasticity makes the alloy difficult to cut. Nitinol has a melting point of 1310 ° C, an Elastic Modulus (GPa) of 40 at martensite (lower temperature) and 75 at austenite, and Electrical Resistivity (µΩ-cm) 76 at martensite and 82 at austenite. Nitinol can be joined by mechanical techniques; adhesives, soldering, welding, and the alloy can be used as shrink-fit to connect two mating parts. Surface finishing is critical on Nitinol parts used for their superelasticity and fatigue strength, any surface irregularities or micro cracks can cause fatigue failure.

http://memry.com/nitinol-iq

P1 Concept Submission Moyer, Kusuma, Li, Huizenga

Niehoff Studion Acoustic Suspension Installation

P1 Schematic 05 Moyer, Kusuma, Li, Huizenga

Our project proposes a panelized cloud system.  Each panel will be suspended between the fluorescent lights that are existing in the space and will be composed of folded panels which will hang on purlins and create buffer zones to trap and disperse standing reverberations.

First we needed to see how the acoustics reverberate in the space as it is. We were able to study the room’s acoustics and reverberations using a grasshopper definition we modified to our needs.

Using the key parameters that are driving the geometry we are creating another grasshopper definition that defines the shift in the lines of the panels. This is done by using magnetic fields with positive and negative charges. Changing the pull of the fields will help drive where we want sound to disperse and where we want it to be more open. Below is an image of how the lines would be diverted.

This is a second testing of the sound reverberations with the panels in place, as you can see there is still some adjustment needed.

The materials used would incorporate lightweight sheet materials such as corrugated cardboard as well as rigid insulation foam. We have also discussed using shallow perforations through the cardboard and part of the foam to help absorb the sound.

By incorporating multiple panels of different heights according to the parametric design throughout the entire room, we will be able to create a sense of design continuity as well as making the acoustic treatment respond to the entire space as a whole.

p1_Sarah Kusuma_05

Modular origami is a paper folding technique which uses two or more sheets of paper to create a larger and more complex structure. Each individual sheet of paper is folded into a module, or unit, and then modules are assembled into an integrated flat shape or three-dimensional structure by inserting flaps into pockets created by the folding process. These insertions create tension or friction that holds the model together without the use of glue or adhesive. The individual models do not necessarily have to be the same shape.

The mathematics of the folded paper (or other material) can change. Many origami models begin from a set of common base folds that can in the course of additional folding become more complex. I would like to take these base modular folds and adapt them to a structure that can be changed based on the acoustic needs of the room.

These needs are based on the acoustic reverberation needed for the room’s use. A concave shape focuses sound to one area of the space, while a convex shape disperses the sound.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/tactom/

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tE4lqYzS2m0

http://greenfusefilms.com